Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse
Recognizing the signs and symptoms of a drinking problem
Are you ready to quit drinking or cut down to healthier levels? These tips can help you get started on the road to recovery.
Overcoming an addiction to alcohol can be a long and bumpy road. At times, it may even feel impossible. But it’s not. If you’re ready to stop drinking and willing to get the support you need, you can recover from alcoholism and alcohol abuse—no matter how heavy your drinking or how powerless you feel. And you don’t have to wait until you hit rock bottom; you can make a change at any time. Whether you want to quit drinking altogether or cut down to healthier levels, these guidelines can help you get started on the road to recovery today.
Most people with alcohol problems do not decide to make a big change out of the blue or transform their drinking habits overnight. Recovery is usually a more gradual process. In the early stages of change, denial is a huge obstacle. Even after admitting you have a drinking problem, you may make excuses and drag your feet. It's important to acknowledge your ambivalence about stopping drinking. If you're not sure if you're ready to change or you're struggling with the decision, it can help to think about the costs and benefits of each choice.
Make a table like the one below, weighing the costs and benefits of drinking to the costs and benefits of quitting.
|Is drinking worth the cost?|
|Benefits of drinking|
|Benefits of NOT drinking|
|Costs of drinking|
|Costs of NOT drinking|
Once you've made the decision to change, the next step is establishing clear drinking goals. The more specific, realistic, and clear your goals, the better.
Example #1: My drinking goal
Example #2: My drinking goal
Do you want to stop drinking altogether or just cut back? If your goal is to reduce your drinking, decide which days you will drink alcohol and how many drinks you will allow yourself per day. Try to commit to at least two days each week when you won't drink at all.
When do you want to stop drinking or start drinking less? Tomorrow? In a week? Next month? Within six months? If you're trying to stop drinking, set a specific quit date.
After you've set your goals to either stop or cut back your drinking, write down some ideas on how you can help yourself accomplish these goals. For example:
Get rid of temptations. Remove all alcohol, barware, and other alcohol-related paraphernalia from your home and office.
Announce your goal. Let friends, family members, and co-workers know that you're trying to stop or cut back on drinking. If they drink, ask them to support your recovery by not doing so in front of you.
Be upfront about your new limits. Make it clear that drinking will not be allowed in your home and that you may not be able to attend events where alcohol is being served.
Avoid bad influences. Distance yourself from people who don't support your efforts to stop drinking or respect the limits you've set. This may mean giving up certain friends and social connections.
Learn from the past. Reflect on previous attempts to stop or reduce your drinking. What worked? What didn't? What can you do differently this time to avoid pitfalls?
Whether or not you can successfully cut back on your drinking depends on the severity of your drinking problem. If you're an alcoholic—which, by definition, means you aren't able to control your drinking—it's best to try to stop drinking entirely. But if you're not ready to take that step, or if you don't have an alcohol abuse problem but want to cut back for personal or health reasons, the following tips can help:
Set your drinking goal. Choose a limit for how much you’ll drink, but make sure your limit is not more than one drink a day if you’re a woman, two drinks a day if you’re a man—and try to have some days each week when you won’t drink alcohol at all. Write your drinking goal down and keep it where you will frequently see it, such as on your phone or taped to your refrigerator.
Keep a record of your drinking to help you reach your goal. For 3 to 4 weeks, write down every time you have a drink and how much you drink. Reviewing the results, you may be surprised at your weekly drinking habits.
Cut down drinking at home. Try to limit or remove alcohol from your home. It’s much easier to avoid drinking if you don’t keep temptations around.
Drink slower. When you drink, sip slowly and take a break of 30 minutes or one hour between drinks. Or drink soda, water, or juice between alcoholic drinks. Drinking on an empty stomach is never a good idea, so make sure you eat food when you drink.
Schedule one or two alcohol-free days each week. Then, try to stop drinking for one week. Make a note about how you feel physically and mentally on these days—recognizing the benefits may help you to cut down for good.
Some people are able to stop drinking on their own or with the help of a 12-step program or other support group (see below for links). Others need medical supervision in order to withdraw from alcohol safely and comfortably. Which option is best for you depends on how much you've been drinking, how long you've had a problem, the stability of your living situation, and other health issues you may have.
The first step is often to consult your primary care doctor or GP. Your doctor can evaluate your drinking patterns, diagnose any co-occurring disorders, assess your overall health, and offer treatment referrals. They may even be able to prescribe medication to help you quit.
There's no magic bullet or single treatment that works for everyone. Everyone's needs are different, so it's important that you find a program that feels right to you. Any alcohol addiction treatment program should be customized to your unique problems and situation.
Treatment doesn't have to be limited to doctors and psychologists. Many clergy members, social workers, and counselors also offer addiction treatment services.
Treatment should address more than just your alcohol abuse. Addiction affects your whole life, including your relationships, career, health, and psychological well-being. Treatment success depends on examining the way alcohol abuse has impacted you and developing a new way of living.
Commitment and follow-through are key. Recovering from alcohol addiction or heavy drinking is not a quick and easy process. In general, the longer and more intense the alcohol use, the longer and more intense the treatment you'll need. But regardless of the treatment program's length in weeks or months, long-term follow-up care is crucial to your recovery.
Get treatment for other medical or mental health issues. People often abuse alcohol to ease the symptoms of an undiagnosed mental health problem, such as depression or anxiety. As you seek help for alcohol addiction, it's also important to get treatment for any other psychological issues you're experiencing. Your best chance of recovery is by getting combined mental health and addiction treatment from the same treatment provider or team.
When you drink heavily and frequently, your body becomes physically dependent on alcohol and goes through withdrawal if you suddenly stop drinking. The symptoms of alcohol withdrawal range from mild to severe, and include:
Alcohol withdrawal symptoms usually start within hours after you stop drinking, peak in a day or two, and improve within five days. But in some alcoholics, withdrawal is not just unpleasant—it can be life threatening.
If you're a long-term, heavy drinker, you may need medically supervised detoxification. Detox can be done on an outpatient basis or in a hospital or alcohol treatment facility, where you may be prescribed medication to prevent medical complications and relieve withdrawal symptoms. Talk to your doctor or an addiction specialist to learn more.
The symptoms listed above may be a sign of a severe form of alcohol withdrawal called delirium tremens, or DTs. This rare, emergency condition causes dangerous changes in the way your brain regulates your circulation and breathing, so it's important to get to the hospital right away.
Whether you choose to tackle your alcohol addiction by going to rehab, getting therapy, or taking a self-directed treatment approach, support is essential. Don't try to go it alone. Recovering from alcohol addiction or abuse is much easier when you have people you can lean on for encouragement, comfort, and guidance.
Support can come from family members, friends, counselors, other recovering alcoholics, your healthcare providers, and people from your faith community.
Lean on close friends and family – Having the support of friends and family members is an invaluable asset in recovery. If you're reluctant to turn to your loved ones because you've let them down before, consider going to couples counseling or family therapy.
Build a sober social network – If your previous social life revolved around alcohol, you may need to make some new connections. It's important to have sober friends who will support your recovery. Try taking a class, joining a church or a civic group, volunteering, or attending events in your community.
Make meetings a priority – Join a recovery support group, such as Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), and attend meetings regularly. Spending time with people who understand exactly what you're going through can be very healing. You can also benefit from the shared experiences of the group members and learn what others have done to stay sober.
[Read: Support Groups: Types, Benefits, and What to Expect]
While getting sober is an important first step, it is only the beginning of your recovery from alcohol addiction or heavy drinking. Rehab or professional treatment can get you started on the road to recovery, but to stay alcohol-free for the long term, you'll need to build a new, meaningful life where drinking no longer has a place.
Cravings for alcohol can be intense, particularly in the first six months after you quit drinking. Good alcohol treatment prepares you for these challenges, helping you develop new coping skills to deal with stressful situations, alcohol cravings, and social pressure to drink.
Avoid the things that trigger your urge to drink. If certain people, places, or activities trigger a craving for alcohol, try to avoid them. This may mean making major changes to your social life, such as finding new things to do with your old drinking buddies—or even giving up those friends and finding new ones.
[Read: Staying Social When You Quit Drinking]
Practice saying “no” to alcohol in social situations. No matter how much you try to avoid alcohol, there will probably be times where you're offered a drink. Prepare ahead for how you'll respond, with a firm, yet polite, “no thanks.”
When you're struggling with alcohol cravings, try these strategies:
Talk to someone you trust: your sponsor, a supportive family member or friend, or someone from your faith community.
Distract yourself until the urge passes. Go for a walk, listen to music, do some housecleaning, run an errand, or tackle a quick task.
Remind yourself of your reasons for not drinking. When you're craving alcohol, there's a tendency to remember the positive effects of drinking and forget the negatives. Remind yourself of the adverse long-term effects of heavy drinking and how it won't really make you feel better, even in the short term.
Accept the urge and ride it out, instead of trying to fight it. This is known as “urge surfing.” Think of your craving as an ocean wave that will soon crest, break, and dissipate. When you ride out the craving, without trying to battle, judge, or ignore it, you'll see that it passes more quickly than you'd think.
Alcohol recovery is a process—one that often involves setbacks. Don't give up if you relapse or slip. A drinking relapse doesn't mean you're a failure or that you'll never be able to reach your goal. Each drinking relapse is an opportunity to learn and recommit to sobriety, so you'll be less likely to relapse in the future.
Alcohol abuse and addiction doesn't just affect the person drinking—it affects their families and loved ones, too. Watching a family member struggle with a drinking problem can be as heartbreakingly painful as it is frustrating. But while you can't do the hard work of overcoming addiction for your loved one, your love and support can play a crucial part in their long-term recovery.
Talk to the person about their drinking. Express your concerns in a caring way and encourage your friend or family member to get help. Try to remain neutral and don't argue, lecture, accuse, or threaten.
Learn all you can about addiction. Research the kinds of treatment that are available and discuss these options with your friend or family member.
Take action. Consider staging a family meeting or an intervention, but don't put yourself in a dangerous situation. Offer your support along each step of the recovery journey.
Don't make excuses for your loved one's behavior. The person with the drinking problem needs to take responsibility for their actions. Don't lie or cover things up to protect someone from the consequences of their drinking.
Don't blame yourself. You aren't to blame for your loved one's drinking problem and you can't make them change.
For more, read Helping Someone with a Drinking Problem.
Most of these organizations have worldwide chapters:
Women for Sobriety – Organization dedicated to helping women overcome addictions. (Women for Sobriety, Inc.)
Alcoholics Anonymous – Learn more about the 12 steps and find a support meeting in your area. (Alcoholics Anonymous)
SMART Recovery – Self-Management and Recovery Training (SMART) is a program that aims to achieve abstinence through self-directed change. (SMART Recovery)
Al-Anon and Alateen – Support groups for friends and families of problem drinkers. (al-anon.alateen.org)
Search SAMHSA's Behavioral Health Treatment Services Locator
Finding Quality Addiction Care – Canadian Centre on Substance Use and Addiction
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