Emotional and Psychological Trauma
When bad things happen, it can take a while to get over the pain and feel safe again. But with these self-help strategies and support, you can speed up your recovery.
What is emotional and psychological trauma?
Emotional and psychological trauma is the result of extraordinarily stressful events that shatter your sense of security, making you feel helpless in a dangerous world. Psychological trauma can leave you struggling with upsetting emotions, memories, and anxiety that won’t go away. It can also leave you feeling numb, disconnected, and unable to trust other people.
Traumatic experiences often involve a threat to life or safety, but any situation that leaves you feeling overwhelmed and isolated can result in trauma, even if it doesn’t involve physical harm. It’s not the objective circumstances that determine whether an event is traumatic, but your subjective emotional experience of the event. The more frightened and helpless you feel, the more likely you are to be traumatized.
Emotional and psychological trauma can be caused by:
- One-time events, such as an accident, injury, or a violent attack, especially if it was unexpected or happened in childhood.
- Ongoing, relentless stress, such as living in a crime-ridden neighborhood, battling a life-threatening illness or experiencing traumatic events that occur repeatedly, such as bullying, domestic violence, or childhood neglect.
- Commonly overlooked causes, such as surgery (especially in the first 3 years of life), the sudden death of someone close, the breakup of a significant relationship, or a humiliating or deeply disappointing experience, especially if someone was deliberately cruel.
Coping with the trauma of a natural or manmade disaster can present unique challenges—even if you weren't directly involved in the event. In fact, while it's highly unlikely any of us will ever be the direct victims of a terrorist attack, plane crash, or mass shooting, for example, we're all regularly bombarded by horrific images on social media and news sources of those people who have been. Viewing these images over and over can overwhelm your nervous system and create traumatic stress.
Whatever the cause of your trauma, and whether it happened years ago or yesterday, you can make healing changes and move on with your life.
Speak to a Therapist Now
Childhood trauma and the risk of future trauma
While traumatic events can happen to anyone, you're more likely to be traumatized by an event if you're already under a heavy stress load, have recently suffered a series of losses, or have been traumatized before—especially if the earlier trauma occurred in childhood. Childhood trauma can result from anything that disrupts a child's sense of safety, including:
- An unstable or unsafe environment.
- Separation from a parent.
- Serious illness.
- Intrusive medical procedures.
- Sexual, physical, or verbal abuse.
- Domestic violence.
Experiencing trauma in childhood can result in a severe and long-lasting effect. When childhood trauma is not resolved, a sense of fear and helplessness carries over into adulthood, setting the stage for further trauma. However, even if your trauma happened many years ago, there are steps you can take to overcome the pain, learn to trust and connect to others again, and regain your sense of emotional balance.
Symptoms of psychological trauma
We all react to trauma in different ways, experiencing a wide range of physical and emotional reactions. There is no “right” or “wrong” way to think, feel, or respond, so don't judge your own reactions or those of other people. Your responses are NORMAL reactions to ABNORMAL events.
Emotional and psychological symptoms:
- Shock, denial, or disbelief.
- Confusion, difficulty concentrating.
- Anger, irritability, mood swings.
- Anxiety and fear.
- Guilt, shame, self-blame.
- Withdrawing from others.
- Feeling sad or hopeless.
- Feeling disconnected or numb.
- Insomnia or nightmares.
- Being startled easily.
- Difficulty concentrating.
- Racing heartbeat.
- Edginess and agitation.
- Aches and pains.
- Muscle tension.
Healing from trauma
Trauma symptoms typically last from a few days to a few months, gradually fading as you process the unsettling event. But even when you're feeling better, you may be troubled from time to time by painful memories or emotions—especially in response to triggers such as an anniversary of the event or something that reminds you of the trauma.
If your psychological trauma symptoms don't ease up—or if they become even worse—and you find that you're unable to move on from the event for a prolonged period of time, you may be experiencing Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). While emotional trauma is a normal response to a disturbing event, it becomes PTSD when your nervous system gets “stuck” and you remain in psychological shock, unable to make sense of what happened or process your emotions.
Whether or not a traumatic event involves death, you as a survivor must cope with the loss, at least temporarily, of your sense of safety. The natural reaction to this loss is grief. Like people who have lost a loved one, you need to go through a grieving process. The following tips can help you cope with the sense of grief, heal from the trauma, and move on with your life.
Trauma recovery tip 1: Get moving
Trauma disrupts your body's natural equilibrium, freezing you in a state of hyperarousal and fear. As well as burning off adrenaline and releasing endorphins, exercise and movement can actually help repair your nervous system.
Try to exercise for 30 minutes or more on most days. Or if it's easier, three 10-minute spurts of exercise per day are just as good.
Exercise that is rhythmic and engages both your arms and legs—such as walking, running, swimming, basketball, or even dancing—works best.
Add a mindfulness element. Instead of focusing on your thoughts or distracting yourself while you exercise, really focus on your body and how it feels as you move. Notice the sensation of your feet hitting the ground, for example, or the rhythm of your breathing, or the feeling of wind on your skin. Rock climbing, boxing, weight training, or martial arts can make this easier—after all, you need to focus on your body movements during these activities in order to avoid injury.
Tip 2: Don't isolate
Following a trauma, you may want to withdraw from others, but isolation only makes things worse. Connecting to others face to face will help you heal, so make an effort to maintain your relationships and avoid spending too much time alone.
You don't have to talk about the trauma. Connecting with others doesn't have to involve talking about the trauma. In fact, for some people, that can just make things worse. Comfort comes from feeling engaged and accepted by others.
Ask for support. While you don't have to talk about the trauma itself, it is important that you have someone to share your feelings with face to face, someone who will listen attentively without judging you. Turn to a trusted family member, friend, counselor, or clergyman.
Participate in social activities, even if you don't feel like it. Do “normal” activities with other people, activities that have nothing to do with the traumatic experience.
Reconnect with old friends. If you've retreated from relationships that were once important to you, make the effort to reconnect.
Join a support group for trauma survivors. Connecting with others who are facing the same problems can help reduce your sense of isolation, and hearing how others cope can help inspire you in your own recovery.
Volunteer. As well as helping others, volunteering can be a great way to challenge the sense of helplessness that often accompanies trauma. Remind yourself of your strengths and reclaim your sense of power by helping others.
Make new friends. If you live alone or far from family and friends, it's important to reach out and make new friends. Take a class or join a club to meet people with similar interests, connect to an alumni association, or reach out to neighbors or work colleagues.
If connecting to others is difficult…
Many people who have experienced trauma feel disconnected, withdrawn and find it difficult to connect with other people. If that describes you, there are some actions you can take before you next meet with a friend:
Exercise or move. Jump up and down, swing your arms and legs, or just flail around. Your head will feel clearer and you'll find it easier to connect.
Vocal toning. As strange as it sounds, vocal toning is a great way to open up to social engagement. Sit up straight and simply make “mmmm” sounds. Change the pitch and volume until you experience a pleasant vibration in your face.
Tip 3: Self-regulate your nervous system
No matter how agitated, anxious, or out of control you feel, it's important to know that you can change your arousal system and calm yourself. Not only will it help relieve the anxiety associated with trauma, but it will also engender a greater sense of control.
Mindful breathing. If you are feeling disoriented, confused, or upset, practicing mindful breathing is a quick way to calm yourself. Simply take 60 breaths, focusing your attention on each ‘out' breath.
Sensory input. Does a specific sight, smell or taste quickly make you feel calm? Or maybe petting an animal or listening to music works to quickly soothe you? Everyone responds to sensory input a little differently, so experiment with different quick stress relief techniques to find what works best for you.
Staying grounded. To feel in the present and more grounded, sit on a chair. Feel your feet on the ground and your back against the chair. Look around you and pick six objects that have red or blue in them. Notice how your breathing gets deeper and calmer.
Allow yourself to feel what you feel when you feel it. Acknowledge your feelings about the trauma as they arise and accept them. HelpGuide's Emotional Intelligence Toolkit can help.
Tip 4: Take care of your health
It's true: having a healthy body can increase your ability to cope with the stress of trauma.
Get plenty of sleep. After a traumatic experience, worry or fear may disturb your sleep patterns. But a lack of quality sleep can exacerbate your trauma symptoms and make it harder to maintain your emotional balance. Go to sleep and get up at the same time each day and aim for 7 to 9 hours of sleep each night.
Avoid alcohol and drugs. Their use can worsen your trauma symptoms and increase feelings of depression, anxiety, and isolation.
Eat a well-balanced diet. Eating small, well-balanced meals throughout the day will help you keep your energy up and minimize mood swings. Avoid sugary and fried foods and eat plenty of omega-3 fats—such as salmon, walnuts, soybeans, and flaxseeds—to give your mood a boost.
Reduce stress. Try relaxation techniques such as meditation, yoga, or deep breathing exercises. Schedule time for activities that bring you joy such as your favorite hobbies.
Breaking the Cycle of Trauma
Trauma can manifest as symptoms, behaviors, and actions that don't seem to have a root cause. Choose which pathway best describes what you’re currently facing and listen to FREE audio from Sounds True on trauma recovery.CHOOSE NOW
When to seek professional therapy for trauma
Recovering from trauma takes time, and everyone heals at their own pace. But if months have passed and your symptoms aren't letting up, you may need professional help from a trauma expert.
Seek help for trauma if you're:
- Having trouble functioning at home or work.
- Suffering from severe fear, anxiety, or depression.
- Unable to form close, satisfying relationships.
- Experiencing terrifying memories, nightmares, or flashbacks.
- Avoiding more and more anything that reminds you of the trauma.
- Emotionally numb and disconnected from others.
- Using alcohol or drugs to feel better.
Working through trauma can be scary, painful, and potentially re-traumatizing, so this healing work is best undertaken with the help of an experienced trauma specialist. Finding the right therapist may take some time. It's very important that the therapist you choose has experience treating trauma. But the quality of the relationship with your therapist is equally important. Choose a trauma specialist you feel comfortable with. If you don't feel safe, respected, or understood, find another therapist.
- Did you feel comfortable discussing your problems with the therapist?
- Did you feel like the therapist understood what you were talking about?
- Were your concerns taken seriously or were they minimized or dismissed?
- Were you treated with compassion and respect?
- Do you believe that you could grow to trust the therapist?
Treatment for trauma
In order to heal from psychological and emotional trauma, you'll need to resolve the unpleasant feelings and memories you've long avoided, discharge pent-up “fight-or-flight” energy, learn to regulate strong emotions, and rebuild your ability to trust other people. A trauma specialist may use a variety of different therapy approaches in your treatment.
Somatic experiencing focuses on bodily sensations, rather than thoughts and memories about the traumatic event. By concentrating on what's happening in your body, you can release pent-up trauma-related energy through shaking, crying, and other forms of physical release.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy helps you process and evaluate your thoughts and feelings about a trauma.
EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing) incorporates elements of cognitive-behavioral therapy with eye movements or other forms of rhythmic, left-right stimulation that can “unfreeze” traumatic memories.
Helping a loved one deal with trauma
When a loved one has suffered trauma, your support can play a crucial role in their recovery.
Be patient and understanding. Healing from trauma takes time. Be patient with the pace of recovery and remember that everyone's response to trauma is different. Don't judge your loved one's reaction against your own response or anyone else's.
Offer practical support to help your loved one get back into a normal routine. That may mean helping with collecting groceries or doing housework, for example, or simply being available to talk or listen.
Don't pressure your loved one into talking but be available if they want to talk. Some trauma survivors find it difficult to talk about what happened. Don't force your loved one to open up but let them know you are there to listen if they want to talk, or available to just hang out if they don't.
Help your loved one to socialize and relax. Encourage them to participate in physical exercise, seek out friends, and pursue hobbies and other activities that bring them pleasure. Take a fitness class together or set a regular lunch date with friends.
Don't take the trauma symptoms personally. Your loved one may become angry, irritable, withdrawn, or emotionally distant. Remember that this is a result of the trauma and may not have anything to do with you or your relationship.
To help a child recover from trauma, it's important to communicate openly. Let them know that it's normal to feel scared or upset. Your child may also look to you for cues on how they should respond to trauma, so let them see you dealing with your symptoms in a positive way.
How children react to emotional and psychological trauma
Some common reactions to trauma and ways to help your child deal with them:
- Regression. Many children need to return to an earlier stage where they felt safer. Younger children may wet the bed or want a bottle; older children may fear being alone. It's important to be understanding, patient and comforting if your child responds this way.
- Thinking the event is their fault. Children younger than 8 tend to think that if something goes wrong, it must be their fault. Be sure your child understands that he or she did not cause the event.
- Sleep disorders. Some children have difficulty falling asleep; others wake frequently or have troubling dreams. Give your child a stuffed animal, soft blanket, or flashlight to take to bed. Try spending extra time together in the evening, doing quiet activities or reading. Be patient. It may take a while before your child can sleep through the night again.
- Feeling helpless. Being active in a campaign to prevent an event from happening again, writing thank you letters to people who have helped, and caring for others can bring a sense of hope and control to everyone in the family.
Authors: Lawrence Robinson, Melinda Smith, M.A., and Jeanne Segal, Ph.D.
Trauma- and Stressor-Related Disorders. (2013). In Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. American Psychiatric Association. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.books.9780890425787.x07_Trauma_and_Stressor_Related_Disorders
“NIMH » Helping Children and Adolescents Cope with Disasters and Other Traumatic Events: What Parents, Rescue Workers, and the Community Can Do.” Accessed October 27, 2021. https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/helping-children-and-adolescents-cope-with-disasters-and-other-traumatic-events
Williamson, Victoria, Cathy Creswell, Ian Butler, Hope Christie, and Sarah L Halligan. “Parental Responses to Child Experiences of Trauma Following Presentation at Emergency Departments: A Qualitative Study.” BMJ Open 6, no. 11 (November 7, 2016): e012944. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2016-012944
Cain, Daphne S., Carol A. Plummer, Rakinzie M. Fisher, and Toni Q. Bankston. “Weathering the Storm: Persistent Effects and Psychological First Aid with Children Displaced by Hurricane Katrina.” Journal of Child & Adolescent Trauma 3, no. 4 (November 16, 2010): 330–43. https://doi.org/10.1080/19361521.2010.523063
Church, Dawson, Crystal Hawk, Audrey J. Brooks, Olli Toukolehto, Maria Wren, Dinter, and Phyllis Stein. “Psychological Trauma Symptom Improvement in Veterans Using Emotional Freedom Techniques: A Randomized Controlled Trial.” The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 201, no. 2 (February 2013): 153–60. https://doi.org/10.1097/NMD.0b013e31827f6351
Widom, C. S. “Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Abused and Neglected Children Grown Up.” The American Journal of Psychiatry 156, no. 8 (August 1999): 1223–29. https://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/doi/10.1176/ajp.156.8.1223
Briere, John, Stacey Kaltman, and Bonnie L. Green. “Accumulated Childhood Trauma and Symptom Complexity.” Journal of Traumatic Stress 21, no. 2 (2008): 223–26. https://doi.org/10.1002/jts.20317
“Childhood Trauma Questionnaire – PsycNET.” Accessed October 29, 2021. https://psycnet.apa.org/doiLanding?doi=10.1037%2Ft02080-000
Agaibi, Christine E., and John P. Wilson. “Trauma, PTSD, and Resilience: A Review of the Literature.” Trauma, Violence & Abuse 6, no. 3 (July 2005): 195–216. https://doi.org/10.1177/1524838005277438
Bonanno, George A. “Loss, Trauma, and Human Resilience: Have We Underestimated the Human Capacity to Thrive after Extremely Aversive Events?” The American Psychologist 59, no. 1 (January 2004): 20–28. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.59.1.20
Schmid, Marc, Franz Petermann, and Joerg M Fegert. “Developmental Trauma Disorder: Pros and Cons of Including Formal Criteria in the Psychiatric Diagnostic Systems.” BMC Psychiatry 13 (January 3, 2013): 3. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-244X-13-3
“The Effectiveness of Body-Oriented Psychotherapy: A Review of the Literature » PACJA.” Accessed October 29, 2021. https://pacja.org.au/2015/07/the-effectiveness-of-body-oriented-psychotherapy-a-review-of-the-literature/
Ley, Clemens, María Rato Barrio, and Andreas Koch. “‘In the Sport I Am Here’: Therapeutic Processes and Health Effects of Sport and Exercise on PTSD.” Qualitative Health Research 28, no. 3 (February 1, 2018): 491–507. https://doi.org/10.1177/1049732317744533
Hegberg, Nicole J., Jasmeet P. Hayes, and Scott M. Hayes. “Exercise Intervention in PTSD: A Narrative Review and Rationale for Implementation.” Frontiers in Psychiatry 10 (2019): 133. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00133
Last updated: November 15, 2022